[i] A landmark study of 17,000 individuals found that about two-thirds of children in the United States have been exposed to traumatic events and nearly 40% suffered two or more traumatic experiences.  Prevalence of Individual Adverse Childhood Experiences, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention (1995-97),


[1] Lenore C. Terr, Childhood Traumas: An Outline and Overview, 148 Am. J. Psychiatry 10, 11 (1991) (defining childhood trauma as the impact of external forces that “[render] the young person temporarily helpless and [break] past ordinary coping and defensive operation….  [This includes] not only those conditions marked by intense surprise but also those marked by prolonged and sickening anticipation.”); Judith Herman, Trauma and Recovery 33 (Basic Books 1997) (explaining that traumatic events “overwhelm the ordinary human adaptations to life….  They confront human beings with the extremities of helplessness and terror.”).


[2] Bruce D. Perry & Ronnie Pollard, Homeostasis, Stress, Trauma, and Adaptation: A Neurodevelopmental View of Childhood Trauma, 7 Child Adolesc. Psychiatr. Clin. N. Am., 33, 36 (1998) (hereinafter “Homeostasis”); Complex Trauma, The National Child Traumatic Stress Network, http://‌‌trauma-types/‌complex-trauma.


[3] Id. at 34-36, 45-46.


[4] Bruce D. Perry et al., Childhood Trauma, the Neurobiology of Adaptation, and “Use-dependent” Development of the Brain: How “States” Become “Traits,”  16 Infant Ment. Health J. 271, 273 (1995) (hereinafter “How ‘States’ Become ‘Traits’”) (“[T]he organizing, sensitive brain of an infant or young child is more malleable to experience than a mature brain.  Although experience may alter the behavior of an adult, experience literally provides the organizing framework for an infant and child.”).


[5] Homeostasis, supra note 2, at 36; Bruce D. Perry, Stress, Trauma and Post-traumatic Stress Disorders in Children: An Introduction, The Child Trauma Academy (2007), at 5, available at, https://‌‌wp-content/‌uploads/‌2013/‌11/‌PTSD_Caregivers.pdf (hereinafter “Stress”) (“[T]he rates of children developing PTSD following traumatic events are higher than those reported for adults.”).


[6] (paywall)


[7] Ray Wolpow et al., The Heart of Learning and Teaching: Compassion, Resiliency, and Academic Success 4, Olympia, WA, Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 2011.


[8] Christopher Blodgett, From Adversity to Action, How the Science of Trauma Can Guide to Better Practice,













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